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3.1 EU: Net greenhouse gas emissions, 20121
    
1990=100
Country2012 emissions indexKyoto target indexAbove/below target
Latvia4392-53.3%
Lithuania4492-51.7%
Estonia4792-48.5%
Romania4892-47.9%
Bulgaria5692-39.1%
Slovakia5892-36.5%
Hungary6494-32.2%
Czech Republic6792-26.8%
Sweden81104-22.4%
Greece106125-15.4%
Croatia8395-13.0%
Finland88100-11.9%
United Kingdom7888-11.4%
Belgium8393-10.7%
France89100-10.5%
Portugal115127-9.6%
Poland8694-8.7%
EU 158792-5.8%
Ireland107113-5.3%
Italy9094-4.0%
Germany7779-3.1%
Denmark7779-2.6%
Netherlands9394-0.8%
Spain1221156.5%
Slovenia1039211.5%
Austria1048719.6%
Luxembourg977235.4%
Cyprus148::
Malta157::
    
Norway1071015.9%
Switzerland98926.1%
Iceland13011017.9%
Source: Eurostat, Environmental Protection Agency
1 2011 data used for Iceland, Norway and Switzerland.

 

  • Under the Kyoto protocol, EU15 countries agreed to reduce total greenhouse gas emissions in the EU by 8% on 1990 levels for the period 2008-2012.
  • Ireland's Kyoto burden-sharing target is to ensure that average levels in the 2008-2012 period are no more than 13% above Ireland's 1990 emissions.
  • Between 2002 and 2008 the level of emissions from Ireland was in the range of 126% to 128% of the 1990 level.  However, Irish emissions fell sharply in 2009 to 115% of the 1990 level and decreased steeply again in 2011 to 106%, before rising slightly to 107% in 2012, (see graph).
  • In 2012 Ireland was 5.3% below the Kyoto limit and ranked 18th among EU countries relative to the Kyoto limit.
  • Four EU countires were above their respective Kyoto emissions limits in 2012 - Luxembourg, Austria, Slovenia and Spain.
IrelandKyoto target
2002126113
2003126113
2004125113
2005128113
2006128113
2007127113
2008126113
2009115113
2010114113
2011106113
2012107113
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3.2 Gross inland consumption of energy divided by GDP, 2008-2012
      
    kgoe per €1,000 GDP
Country20082009201020112012
Ireland8990938483
Denmark9394989087
United Kingdom111110111103105
Italy122121123121117
Austria128126132125124
Germany140139141129129
Luxembourg138137142137134
Spain144137137135136
France151149151143143
EU151149152144143
Portugal159161153151147
Malta177164172164147
Sweden154150157149148
Netherlands149150158145149
Greece151150148154166
Cyprus187186178174167
Belgium184182190182172
Finland207213226210204
Croatia224231232232226
Slovenia231228231231228
Hungary286290294282269
Lithuania363389307299292
Poland337320328315299
Latvia306357382334329
Slovakia376362369349329
Czech Republic371364375355355
Romania410387395394379
Estonia469492547506479
Bulgaria712661669706670
      
Norway117117131109114
Iceland374400417434425
Macedonia523494494523501
Turkey227238233::
  Source: Eurostat

 

  • Ireland's energy intensity ratio deteriorated slightly from 89 in 2008 to 93 in 2010 before improving to 83 in 2012. This ratio is calculated by dividing total usage of coal, electricity, oil, natural gas and renewable energy by GDP and is expressed in terms of kilogramme of oil equivalent (kgoe) per €1,000 GDP.
  • Ireland was the most energy efficient economy in the EU in 2012, with an energy intensity ratio of 83. Six countries had energy intensity ratios above 300 - Bulgaria, Estonia, Romania, Czech Republic, Slovakia and Latvia.
  • The economic structure of an economy plays an important role in determining energy intensity, as service based economies will display relatively low energy intensity rates, while economies with energy intensive industries (such as iron and steel production) may have a considerable proportion of their economic activity within industrial sectors, leading to higher energy intensity.

 

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3.3 Ireland: Particulate matter in urban areas, 2003-2013
       
YearDublinCorkOther Towns1
 Average PM10Number of days PM10 daily limit exceededAverage PM10Number of days PM10 daily limit exceededAverage PM10Number of days PM10 daily limit exceeded
200326282628277
20042014229201
2005198193236
200620101642619
2007187151254
2008177161185
2009171186194
20101972272734
201114721192224
2012130177198
20131431952111
 Source: Environmental Protection Agency
1 Data provided for other towns over the years have been for different locations, see appendix 1 for details.

 

  • The average readings for particulate matter (PM10) in Dublin fell from 26 µg/m3 in 2003 to 20 in 2004 and then remained at around this level between 2005 and 2010.
  • However in 2011 the average readings for particulate matter in Dublin dropped to 14 µg/m3 and remained at about this level for 2012 and 2013.
  • The level for Cork was 26 µg/m3 in 2003 before dropping to less than 20 between 2005 and 2009. Levels then rose to 22 in 2010, before falling slightly to stand at 19 in 2013.
  • The average readings for particulate matter in towns other than Dublin or Cork have ben more variable, ranging from a high of 27 µg/m3 in 2003 and 2010 to a low of 18 in 2008.
  • European legislation contains limit values which permit particulate matter to exceed 50 µg/m3 on not more than 35 days per annum from 2005. This limit was regularly broken in Dubin in the 1990s but has not been broken since than anywhere in Ireland, although the limit was close to being broken in 2010 for towns other than Dublin or Cork.
DublinCorkOther townsEU limit
20032828735
2004149135
200583635
20061041935
200771435
200871535
200916435
2010773435
20117192435
201207835
2013351135
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3.4 Ireland: Greenhouse gas emissions, 2003-20121
      
 000 tonnes CO2000 tonnes N2 O000 tonnes CH4000 tonnes CO2 eq.000 tonnes CO2 eq.
YearCarbon dioxideNitrous oxideMethaneHFC, PFC, SF6Total greenhouse gases
200345,209.927.5663.7859.268,525.8
200445,865.226.9626.3886.768,244.1
200547,689.626.2610.51,083.869,718.3
200647,291.525.8613.81,056.469,230.0
200747,278.525.0588.81,047.768,435.6
200846,925.724.6582.81,136.867,940.5
200941,676.924.4568.91,063.962,239.5
201041,224.725.3558.11,045.161,827.5
201137,650.123.5556.81,053.157,683.7
201237,946.823.9575.01,029.258,466.6
Source: Environmental Protection Agency, CSO
1 The components of greenhouse gases shown in the table above do not add to total greenhouse gases as nitrous oxide and methane are not shown in CO2 equivalents, see Appendix 1 for more details.

 

  • Total greenhouse gas emissions in Ireland were reasonably constant between 2003 and 2008 at about 68.5 million tonnes of CO2 equivalent.
  • Emissions fell by 8.4% between 2008 and 2009 to 62.2 million tonnes followed by a slight drop in 2010 to 61.8 million tonnes.  Emissions decreased again in 2011, falling by 6.7% to 57.7 million tonnes.
  • In 2012 there was an increase of 1.4% in greenhouse gas emissions to 58.5 million tonnes of CO2 equivalent.
  • Between 2003 and 2012, total greenhouse gas emissions fell by 14.7% with decreases in each of the main greenhouse gases of carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and methane.  Carbon dioxide emissions fell by 16.1%, nitrous oxide by 12.9% and methane by 13.4%.
  • The other greenhouse gases (HFCs, PFC and SF6), (which are estimated to comprise around one per cent (in terms of CO2 eqivalent) of the total green house gas emissions for Ireland), increased by nearly a fifth between 2003 and 2012.
Total greenhouse gas emissions
200368525.8215354305
200468244.1396699531
200569718.3340316074
200669230.0320868308
200768435.6463225231
200867940.4526005469
200962239.4939629556
201061827.4628860357
201157683.6872739151
201258466.6448349001
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3.5 Ireland: Air pollutant emissions, 2003-2012
     
 000 tonnes SO2000 tonnes NOx000 tonnes NH3000 tonnes CO
YearSulphur dioxide (SO2)Nitrogen oxide (NOx)Ammonia (NH3)Carbon monoxide (CO)
200379.1128.9112.7207.9
200472.0129.8111.1199.2
200571.6129.2110.0187.5
200660.9122.9109.9178.9
200754.5120.9106.9169.2
200845.2108.8108.2156.6
200932.487.0109.3149.6
201026.380.1107.9137.4
201124.771.8103.7125.9
201223.273.8104.6118.1
Source: Environmental Protection Agency, CSO

 

  • All the main air pollutants decreased between 2003 and 2012.
  • Sulphur dioxide emissions fell by 70.7% over the 2003-2012 time period, from 79.1 million tonnes of SO2 to 23.2 million tonnes.  This was accounted for mainly by the electricity and gas supply sector.
  • Nitrogen oxide emissions, which occur mainly in power generation and road tranpsort, fell by 44.3% between 2003 and 2011 before increasing by 2.8% in 2012.
  • Ammonia emissions, which are caused mainly by agricultural activity, fell by 7.2% over the 2003-2012 time period.  Emissions from carbon monoxide fell by 43.2% over the same time period, driven mainly by more efficient cars and a reduction in the use of solid fuels by households.
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3.6 Ireland: Total municipal waste generated, recovered and landfilled 2003-2012
      
 000 tonnes% of waste generated
YearWaste generatedWaste recoveredWaste landfilledWaste recoveredWaste landfilled
20033,001.0726.81,832.624.261.1
20043,034.6919.01,818.530.359.9
20053,050.1964.41,824.131.659.8
20063,384.61,119.71,980.633.158.5
20073,397.71,159.82,014.834.159.3
20083,224.31,165.11,938.736.160.1
20092,952.91,101.31,723.737.358.4
20102,846.11,084.91,495.638.152.5
20112,823.21,202.61,344.042.647.6
20122,692.51,450.71,027.653.938.2
Source: Environmental Protection Agency, National Waste Report series

 

  • The quantity of municipal waste generated in Ireland increased each year between 2003 and 2007, rising from 3,001,000 tonnes to 3,397,700 tonnes, an increase of 13.2%.
  • However between 2007 and 2012 the quantity of municipal waste generated dropped each year, falling to 2,692,500 tonnes by 2012, a decrease of over a fifth.
  • Waste recovered as a percentage of waste generated rose from 24.2% in 2003 to 53.9% in 2012.
  • Waste landfilled as a percentage of waste generated was close to 60% between 2003 and 2009 before falling sharply over the next three years to reach 38.2% by 2012.
  • Thus 2012 was the first year in Ireland that the percentage of municipal waste which was recovered (53.9%) exceeded the percentage landfilled (38.2%).
% waste landfilled in Ireland% waste recovered in Ireland
200361.066818704065624.2172317641759
200459.92738335564330.2842317484609
200559.804423006558631.6180511020796
200658.517889526875533.0821371822895
200759.299234213433134.1350267226224
200860.128133993284136.1351879690387
200958.437.3
201052.538.1
201147.642.6
201238.165273909006553.8792943361189
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3.7 EU: Municipal waste generated and treated, 20121
      
 kg per person% of municipal waste
CountryGeneratedLandfilledRecycledIncineratedLandfilled
Germany611364.534.90.5
Sweden462347.651.70.6
Belgium456557.242.11.1
Netherlands551849.549.01.5
Denmark6681745.252.22.5
Austria5521859.233.23.3
Luxembourg66211646.835.817.5
France53415238.832.828.5
Finland50616633.433.832.8
EU48716041.323.632.9
Estonia2809831.812.535.0
United Kingdom47217245.616.536.4
Ireland58822436.615.938.2
Italy52921538.219.840.6
Slovenia36215339.51.442.3
Portugal45324726.019.454.5
Czech Republic30817423.120.156.5
Poland31418619.40.359.2
Spain46329327.29.563.3
Hungary40226325.49.265.4
Bulgaria46031825.20.069.1
Slovakia32424013.09.674.1
Lithuania46936119.80.677.0
Romania2712122.60.078.2
Cyprus66352221.10.078.7
Greece50340617.10.080.7
Malta58948512.20.582.3
Croatia39132314.60.082.6
Latvia30125415.60.084.4
      
Switzerland694050.050.00.0
Norway477939.856.21.9
Iceland33816742.67.749.4
Turkey3903260.80.083.6
Macedonia381381::100.0
Source: Eurostat
1 Comparability between countries may be affected by different waste management practices.

 

  • 38.2% of municipal waste was landfilled in Ireland in 2012, above the EU average of 32.9%.  Germany, Sweden, Belgium, the Netherlands, Denmark and Austria all had very low landfill levels (less than 4%) because they recycle and incinerate much of their waste while Switzerland has no landfilled waste at all.
  • More than a third (36.6%) of municipal waste generated in Ireland in 2012 was recycled, below the EU average of 41.3%.
  • The highest recycling rate was in Germany where nearly two-thirds of municipal waste was recycled, while the lowest rate was in Romania at just 2.6%.
  • The rate of incineration in Ireland, at 15.9%, is also below the EU average rate which was 23.6% in 2012.
  • Ireland had the sixth highest amount of municipal waste generated per person in the EU in 2012, at 588kg per person.
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3.8 EU: Passenger cars per 1,000 population aged 15 and over, 2008-2012
      
cars per 1,000 population aged 15 and over
Country20082009201020112012
Luxembourg828817814818816
Italy716717722727:
Cyprus699703683:661
Malta681672687700702
Lithuania615627633659685
Finland613626645664678
Austria609615623629638
Slovenia604606604606605
France596599:::
Germany581583590597605
Belgium579581586592591
Spain568558560562560
Sweden560558556561:
Netherlands560562566572572
United Kingdom550563556553553
Ireland542530521545543
Greece526537547::
Poland499511532555573
Czech Republic499496501511525
Latvia494486349343353
Estonia484481489510538
Denmark470::::
Croatia424420416418398
Bulgaria362386404421442
Hungary358353350348352
Slovakia342350366383399
Romania230245251253263
Portugal::524525475
      
Switzerland622615617623616
Norway573551584592599
Turkey131135140148155
Source: Eurostat

 

  • In 2008 the number of cars per 1,000 population aged 15 and over varied from 230 in Romania to 828 in Luxembourg.
  • The number of private cars per 1,000 population aged 15 and over in Ireland fell from 542 in 2008 to 521 by 2010 but has since climbed back to 543 in 2012.
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3.9 EU: Share of road transport in total inland freight transport, 2008-2012
      
% of inland freight
Country20082009201020112012
Latvia38.730.238.136.235.8
Estonia55.347.345.848.553.0
Romania70.260.049.250.253.3
Austria58.659.556.356.054.6
Netherlands59.963.859.558.356.2
Belgium68.572.967.966.358.3
Sweden64.963.260.761.860.3
Lithuania58.059.959.158.862.3
Germany65.567.064.965.864.6
Finland74.175.775.073.973.0
Croatia72.773.771.274.073.6
Bulgaria66.967.468.173.674.7
EU76.377.576.275.675.1
Hungary74.778.875.175.975.1
Slovakia73.877.974.876.677.6
Czech Republic76.777.879.079.278.2
France80.781.082.281.180.6
Poland75.980.580.679.481.9
Slovenia82.284.082.381.482.1
Italy88.390.490.487.885.9
United Kingdom88.387.888.788.087.8
Denmark91.390.887.086.088.0
Luxembourg93.394.693.593.793.2
Portugal93.994.393.994.093.2
Spain95.796.495.895.495.2
Greece97.398.198.098.398.7
Ireland99.499.399.299.099.1
Cyprus100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
Malta100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
      
Switzerland53.155.554.454.153.9
Norway85.084.085.084.385.3
Macedonia84.389.089.091.892.2
Turkey94.594.694.494.794.7
Iceland100.0100.0100.0100.0100.0
Source: Eurostat

 

  • Road transport accounted for 99.1% of total inland freight transport in Ireland in 2012.  This was the highest proportion in the EU among countries with a rail network, (neither Cyprus nor Malta have railways).
  • Only 35.8% of inland freight was transported by road in Latvia while the EU average was 75.1%.

 

 

This map is © Ordnance Survey Ireland. All rights reserved. License number 01/05/001.

 

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